Tracking the Vertebral Artery – Safe Corridors

V2 segment
– entry of VA higher than C6 or through the C7 foramen transversarium
– loops (medial or lateral)
– medial loops (at disc or vertebral body level)

V3 segment (divided into three parts)

V31 – High riding vertebra artery – too high, too posterior or too medial
V32 – VA branches below the C1 arch (extracranial origin of PICA
VA coursing below the C1 arch (persistent first intersegmental artery), or a fenestrated VA
V33 – Ponticulus ponticus, abnormal courses associated with occipitalised atlas

Physiology of Micturition

Amazing explanation! I wish Armando Hasudungan’s videos were around when we learnt physiology in medical school. This video is a quick review of the physiology of micturition. The only way to understand neurogenic bladder is to first get the basics of normal physiology right.

Armando’s YouTube channel is worth following. Link below.

Work from home ergonomics

This is a webinar on how to work from home in the lockdown and avoid low back pain. I discuss some misconceptions about low back pain. Besides, I have shared some tips on how to set up an ergonomic office space at home.


00:00 Intro

02:07​ Basic Anatomy

03:40 Why do people get back pain?

05:56​ Red flags not to be ignored

08:02 What does it mean to have degenerated disc?

11:14 Example of how Acute back pain is treated 15:33 How to prevent back pain?

20:02 How to set up a workplace at home?

25:20 Take micro-breaks

27:49 How to lift heavy objects?

Video Journal Club – AIS Classifications

Dr Kshitij Chaudhary is a consultant spine surgeon at the PD Hinduja Hospital, Mahim, Mumbai.

In this video he discusses two of classic papers on Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

King, H. A., Moe, J. H., Bradford, D. S. & Winter, R. B. The selection of fusion levels in thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: American Volume 65, 1302 1313 (1983)

Lenke, L. G. et al. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A New Classification to Determine Extent of Spinal Arthrodesis. JBJS Am 83, 1169–1181 (2001).

Interview with Dr John Lonstein

This interview was part of the 2021 virtual annual conference of the Association of Spine Surgeons of India.

In this interview, I talk to one of the legends of spinal deformity surgery, Dr. John Lonstein from the famous Twin Cities Spine Center, Minneapolis, and Gillette Children’s hospital, Saint Paul, USA.

Robert Winter – Imagine Lecture

I accidentally came across this YouTube video the other day, researching the history of scoliosis surgery. This is a talk given by the famous Dr. Robert Winter. It is a rare video of Dr Winter speaking as he shares his experience of learning scoliosis surgery over several decades. The IMAGINE lecture series was started in honor of his son Dr David Winter, who passed away of cancer a year before he gave this talk.

Dr. Winter describes his life journey and the incredible experience he has had learning from his teachers and patients alike. And I am proud to say that I was one of his students in Minneapolis.